Google Glass Has an Afterlife as a Device to Teach Autistic Children
SAN FRANCISCO — When Esaïe Prickett sat down in the lounge together with his mom, father and 4 older brothers, he was the one one sporting Google Glass.
As Esaïe, who was 10 on the time and is 12 now, gazed via the computerized glasses, his household made faces — comfortable, unhappy, stunned, indignant, bored — and he tried to determine every emotion. In an on the spot, the glasses advised him whether or not he was proper or flawed, flashing tiny digital icons that solely he might see.
Esaïe was 6 when he and his household realized he had autism. The expertise he was utilizing whereas sitting in the lounge was meant to assist him discover ways to acknowledge feelings and make eye contact with these round him. The glasses would confirm his selections provided that he regarded straight at a face.
He and his household examined the expertise for a number of weeks as a part of a scientific trial run by researchers at Stanford University in and across the San Francisco Bay Area. Recently detailed in The Journal of the American Medical Association, Pediatrics, the trial matches right into a rising effort to construct new applied sciences for kids on the autism spectrum, together with interactive robots and computerized eyewear.
The Stanford research’s outcomes present that the strategies have promise and point out that they might assist youngsters like Esaïe perceive feelings and interact in additional direct methods with these round them. They might additionally measure adjustments in conduct, one thing that has traditionally been tough to do.
Experts consider that different new applied sciences could assist in related methods. Talking digital assistants like Amazon’s Alexa, for instance, might assist youngsters who misuse their pronouns. But whilst these concepts unfold, researchers warn that they may require rigorous testing earlier than their results are fully understood.
Catalin Voss began constructing software program for Google Glass in 2013, not lengthy after Google unveiled the computerized eyewear amid a lot hullabaloo from the nationwide media. An 18-year-old Stanford freshman on the time, Mr. Voss started constructing an utility that would robotically acknowledge pictures. Then he considered his cousin, who had autism.
Growing up, Mr. Voss’s cousin practiced recognizing facial expressions whereas wanting into a toilet mirror. Google Glass, Mr. Voss thought, may enhance on this frequent train. Drawing on the most recent advances in laptop imaginative and prescient, his software program might robotically learn facial expressions and hold shut observe of when somebody acknowledged an emotion and when they didn’t.
“I was trying to build software that could recognize faces,” Mr. Voss mentioned. “And I knew that there were people who struggled with that.”
At the time, the temporary second Google Glass spent within the nationwide highlight was already coming to an finish. Google stopped promoting the gadget to shoppers amid considerations that its built-in digicam would compromise private privateness.
But Google Glass lived on as one thing for use by researchers and companies, and Mr. Voss, now a Ph.D. pupil, spent the subsequent a number of years creating his utility with Dennis Wall, a Stanford professor who focuses on autism analysis, and others on the college.
Their scientific trial, performed over two years with 71 youngsters, is without doubt one of the first of its sort. It spanned all the pieces from extreme types of autism, together with youngsters with speech impairments and tactile sensitivities, to a lot milder types. Children who used the software program of their properties confirmed a major acquire on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, an ordinary software for monitoring the conduct of these on the autism spectrum, Mr. Voss mentioned.
The acquire was in keeping with enhancements by youngsters who obtained remedy in devoted clinics via extra conventional strategies. The hope is that Mr. Voss’s utility and related strategies may help extra youngsters in additional locations, with out common visits to clinics.
“It is a way for families to, on some level, provide their own therapy,” Mr. Voss mentioned.
Jeffrey Prickett, Esaïe’s father, mentioned he had been drawn to the research as a result of he had identified it will attraction to his son, who enjoys utilizing iPad apps and watching DVD films.
“He does fine interacting with people,” Mr. Prickett mentioned. “But he does better interacting with technology.”
Mr. Prickett discovered it exhausting to guage whether or not the Google gadget helped his son acknowledge feelings, however he noticed a marked enchancment in Esaïe’s capability to make eye contact.
Heather Crowhurst, who lives close to Sacramento, mentioned she had skilled one thing related together with her Eight-year-old son, Thomas, who additionally participated within the trial. But Thomas was not fully enthusiastic about the digital remedy. “It was kind of boring,” he mentioned.
The concern with such research is that they depend on the observations of oldsters who’re serving to their youngsters use the expertise, mentioned Catherine Lord, a scientific psychologist on the University of California, Los Angeles, who specializes within the analysis and remedy of autism. The dad and mom are conscious of the technological intervention, so their observations is probably not dependable.
Still, the Stanford staff considers its research a primary step towards wider use of this and different applied sciences in autism. It has licensed the expertise to Cognoa, a Silicon Valley start-up based by Dr. Wall. The firm hopes to commercialize the strategy as soon as it receives approval from the Food and Drug Administration, which oversees the usage of medical gadgets within the United States. That should still be years away.
Other firms are taking a distinct method. Brain Power, a start-up in Massachusetts that has constructed related software program for Google Glass, is promoting its expertise to native faculties. The firm considers it a educating software, not a medical gadget.
Patrick Daly, the assistant superintendent of the college district in North Reading, Mass., is testing Brain Power’s expertise after watching its impact on his 9-year-old son, who’s on the spectrum. The district intends to check the expertise over the subsequent few years.
Previously, the district tried to show related abilities via iPad laptop tablets. Mr. Daly sees Google Glass as a giant enchancment.
“It can actually maintain eye contact,” he mentioned. “They are not looking down while they try to learn an emotion.”
Robokind, a start-up in Dallas, applies the identical philosophy to completely different hardware. The firm spent the previous a number of years designing a robotic that makes an attempt to show most of the similar abilities as applied sciences constructed for digital eyewear. Called Milo, the doll-like, two-foot-tall robotic mimics fundamental feelings and tries to make eye contact with college students. It additionally asks questions and tries to interact college students in easy conversations.
Robokind has offered lots of of the robots to varsities for testing. Each one prices $12,000, plus greater than $three,500 for extra software program.
In some methods, such a tool is a poor substitute for actual human interplay. But the energy of this and different applied sciences is that they’ll repeat duties repeatedly, with out getting drained or bored or indignant. They may also measure conduct in exact methods, mentioned Pam Feliciano, the scientific director of the nonprofit Simons Foundation Powering Autism Research.
For these causes, Ms. Feliciano additionally sees promise in Amazon’s Alexa. Her 14-year-old son is on the spectrum and struggles together with his pronouns. He typically calls himself “you,” not “I.”
Her process is to appropriate him every time he makes a mistake. But she’s human and will get drained. She doesn’t at all times keep in mind. A tool like Alexa might assist, she mentioned, offered that researchers can present it’s dependable and efficient.
“The technologies are there,” she mentioned. “It is just a matter of the right technologists working with the right clinicians.”